Now we will discuss the T-staging for colon cancer.
Tis is the disease which is limited to the epithelium. If it infiltrates into the lamina propria or muscularis mucosa, it is called as T1a.
And T1b, when it infiltrates into the submucosa.
Infiltration into muscularis propria is called as T2 disease.
Pericolorectal tissue infiltration is called as T3 disease.
And infiltration of serosa is called as T4a. If the tumor infiltrates through the wall of colon, to involve the surrounding structures, it is called as T4b.
A tumor present in almost any part of the colon may infiltrate into the small intestine.
Tumor in the ascending colon may infiltrate into the right kidney. And that in the descending colon may infiltrate into the left kidney.
A transverse colon tumor may extend to involve pancreas. And may even extend to involve the stomach.
Now we will discuss the N staging or the nodal for colon cancer staging. In this figure, you can see the draining lymph nodes for the colon.
It can be called as N1 or N2, depending upon the number of lymph nodes involved.
Lastly, we will discuss the M-staging or the metastatic of colon cancer staging.
As you can see in the figure, the venous drainage from most of the part of colon, ultimately pass through the liver.
So liver is the most common site for the distant spread of the tumor from colon.
As you can see in this figure, the tumor in the right side of the colon has spread to the liver.
In this figure, a left sided tumor has spread to the liver. Due to the direction of vaccular drainage, after liver, lungs are the second most common organs involved by metastasis.
This figure shows the spread of colon cancer to both the lungs, in form of multiple nodular deposits.
And sometimes, both lungs and liver maybe involved in the metastatic spread of the disease, as we can see in this figure.
The tumor may also spread to the peritoneum, in form of peritoneal deposits. It may rarely spread to one or both the ovaries. Very rarely, the tumor may also spread to the brain or bones.
So with this, we finish the TNM staging for colon cancer.
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